characteristics of chicken meat

Marans chicken is a dual purpose breed and known for both of it’s fine meat qualities and extremely dark eggs. The increased risk of developing diabetes is related to various factors, of which the intake of saturated animal fat is among the most significant ones [32]. In addition, chicken meat is known by its nutritional quality, as it contains significant amount of high-quality and easily digestible protein and a low portion of saturated fat. Female chickens had lower CIE L* values than male chickens (Cobb ♀ = CIE L* 49.24 and ♂ = CIE L* 50.60, i.e. Figure 11.17. The same procedure was performed in other poultry meats (quail and duck) with interesting results (Lázaro et al., 2015). The color of the breast fillet was increased in terms of luminosity when treated with Ar during 180 s, suggesting a possible denaturation effect (Rossow et al., 2018). Diets contained fish oil at Control 0, Lofish 20 and Hifish 40 g/kg diet. The value of CIE a* (redness) reduced significantly in m. pectoralis profundus, and CIE b* increased in m. pectoralis superficialis in both chicken sexes (P < 0.001). Matan et al. The International Commission on Illumination lists three values: CIE L*, a* and b*. The research results proved more efficient synthesis and deposition of carnosine in broiler meat of experimental group than in the control group (breasts 1443.35:664.1 mg/kg, P < 0.01; thighs 452.62:342.14 mg/kg, P = 0.057). The points correspond to the experimental measurements and the lines correspond to the predictions of the model, César A. Lázaro de la Torre, Carlos A. Conte-Junior, in Food Control and Biosecurity, 2018. The breed of chicken has well-proportioned bodies with short legs. The authors concluded that feeding treatment influenced the protein content in meat of thighs of females only (C = 19.27% E = 17.76%; P < 0.05). The researches into the use of EPA and DHA in prevention of heart diseases are often controversial, but many of them prove positive effects of the stated fatty acids. The method was evaluated and compared in two different detectors (UV and MS). Selenium is also very important to human fertility and reproduction. Beak of chicken is on the front side of head. The examinees made differences between PSE and meat of normal quality in stores, while panelists assessed sensory quality of cooked meat and showed preference toward control samples (meat of “normal” quality). Approximately half of the consumer population identified raw or undercooked poultry meat as the most important food source for foodborne pathogens (particularly Salmonella and Campylobacter; FSA 2001). One of the most important health benefits of selenium is its role in cancer prevention. Also, the complex-plane representations of the dielectric properties of chicken breast meat samples indicate a broad relaxation that is typical of bound water with different degrees of binding. While there was an effort to create an exceptional fighting chicken called the Indian Game bird, the temperament didn’t fit the bird. Comparison of the experimental and predicted titration curves of chicken meat in the presence of acetic acid. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet-containing spray dried blood cells (SDBC). P. Glatz, G. Bolla, in Encyclopedia of Meat Sciences, 2004. In their research into the PSE chicken meat in further processing (marinating and cooking), Barbut et al. Zelenka et al. Influence of interaction between genotype and sex was observed in breast texture values (P < 0.020). Effects of fish oil in the diet and breed of chicken on the mean EPA and DHA concentration (mg/100 g meat) in white chicken meat. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It should be emphasized that nowadays poultry is fattened in an intensive way, so the stress is an inevitable factor, and the feed, with increased content of microalgae and vegetable and fish oils used to enrich poultry products with desirable fatty acids, is susceptible to oxidation [11, 12, 13, 14]. More precisely, it caused the increase in portion of ALA, EPA, DPA and DHA, that is, in portion of total n-3 PUFA, and it affected also the lowering of the total SFA and MUFA portion. When considering nutritional aspects, poultry meat is good for consumers because it is rich in protein and minerals, and contains a small amount of fat with high portion of unsaturated fatty acids and a low cholesterol level [2]. Instruments used for evaluation of meat color by reflection method are colorimeters, for example, CR Minolta 300 or 400 that work on the principle of meat color comparison in regard to standard color values. Donoghue, in Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food, 2012. The variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor with temperature at 2.936 GHz for chicken breast meat samples and distilled water are shown in Figures 11.20 and 11.21. Recent researches into enrichment of chicken meat with carnosine as a functional ingredient confirmed that carnosine influences regulation of intracellular pH, it prevents oxidation and it is also important for maintaining the neurotransmission [111, 112]. According to some researches, people have changed their dietary habits, so that over the past 150 years, once favorable and very narrow n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratio turned into unfavorable and wide ratio. Chicken generally includes low fat in the meat itself (castrated roosters excluded). Furthermore, they stated that the source of selenium influenced the selenium content and GPx activity in chicken blood (P = 0.01). Free-range farms usually comprise small mobile or fixed houses producing 500–10 000 birds per batch, with market requirements determining the growing period for birds, usually 8–12 weeks. that have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. The quality of broiler meat is affected by a number of factors, as follows: fattening system, duration of fattening, hybrid and sex, feeding treatment, handling before slaughter, freezing of carcasses, storage time, etc. Male chickens had statistically significantly lighter breast meat than females (P < 0.05). Sodium is an electrolyte, and magnesium is important for normal synthesis of protein and proper muscle activity. The same as designed poultry feed mixtures with increased microalgae or oil content, poultry products (meat and eggs) enriched with omega-3 fatty acids are also subjected to oxidation. The compounds responsible for the discriminations were identified using the original NMR data. The authors stated a positive correlation between the intake of saturated fat intake and the resistance to insulin. They are typically solid black in color. The stated authors assessed the consumers’ opinions toward pale, soft and exudative chicken meat. This conclusion was confirmed by researches carried out among populations with significantly higher consumption of meat than recommended. Furthermore, the same group had the highest content of n-3 PUFA (1.15 mg/g), while the least content of those fatty acids was determined in the control group (0.26 mg/g). This may signal the presence of two distinct relaxations, with one in the lower frequency region and another above 4 GHz. Figure 11.21. Niacin is very important for proper metabolism of carbohydrates and for energy creation. China consumes approximately 40% of the world egg production each year (FAOSTAT 2010). Rice bran oil and linseed oil are supplemented to S and F diets in the amounts as presented. Chicken meat composition in amino acids and fatty acids. Infante and Huszagh stated that DHA is synthesized in mitochondrial membranes, while EPA and AA are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum [74, 75]. Breed of birds used, Ross 308 and Cobb 500. Applying NOPLS to the results obtained revealed that all of the groups could be discriminated from all of the others. 104 Syed Sarwar Jahan et al. Chicken meat is composed of 70% water, 20% proteins, and 5% lipids, on average. Yet, consumers are noticeably concerned about contamination in poultry products, particularly meat (Yeung and Morris 2001). Author Hakan Benli. Wings can be broken down into three parts: wing tip, winglette, and wing drumette (Figure 30). In contrast, values of the dielectric loss factor of distilled water decrease more rapidly than those of the chicken breast meat as temperature increases above 0°C. In 1893, the breed was recognized by the American Poultry Association under the name of Indian Game birds. 13 ) Avian influenza (a.k.a. determined that supplementation of histidine to turkey diet resulted in the increased diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity in breast muscles and blood, but did not result in the increased histidine dipeptide concentration [102]. The optimal ratio of n-6 PUFA:n-3 PUFA is from 10:1 to 5:1 [70, 71]. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium were inoculated on egg shells (5.5–6.5 log/eggshell) and treated under a resistive barrier discharge (RBD) cold plasma device at 15 kV. Lamb, domestic, leg, shank half, separable lean only, trimmed to 1/4″ fat, choice, cooked, roasted. EGG PRODUCTION: Two hundred to 300 light-brown eggs per year is not uncommon for this heavy egg-layer. Table 3 presents border values for PSE, normal and DFD chicken meat, as reported by various authors. Bogosavljević-Bošković et al. By catching and neutralizing the activity of free radicals, carnosine prevents oxidative damage occurrence. The highest pH values were measured in breast meat of male and female chickens of the group A (pH = 6.08 and pH = 5.97, respectively), while in feeding treatments with lower portion of crude protein in feeding mixture the value of pH in breast meat of both sexes decreased (♂ B = 5.99 and C ♂ =5.77 and ♀ B = 5.85 and ♀ C = 5.66). Light meat with skin contains the lowest amount of cholesterol of all chicken types. The block is then vacuum packed and stored between 0 and 4 °C. Red meat contains more potentially harmful ingredients than white meat. added to chicken feed, apart of 0.10% L-histidine, also 0.20% β-alanine and 0.24% MgO as a catalyzer [110]. Relatively low sales prices of chicken meat, in comparison to other types of meat, speak in favor of the increased chicken meat consumption. It is important to mention that chicken with skin contains 2–3 times more fat than chicken without skin, so it should be eaten without skin to ensure the intake of high-quality protein without extra calories and fat. The woody breast condition affects texture characteristics of both raw and cooked chicken breast meat The wooden breast condition (WBC) is a muscle abnormality observed in chicken breast meat ( Pectoralis major ) that is an emerging challenge to the poultry industry. It is necessary to improve chicken meat production technology year after year and to offer new products to the market. Dlouhá et al. One of the features that differentiate it from most other birds is that it has a comb and two wattles. (2014) studied the use of essential oils clove, sweet basil, and lime oils and the main components of each one, eugenol, β-ocimene, and d-limonene (5–20 μL/mL), respectively, together with cold plasma to inactivate target pathogens on egg shells. The values of pH in breast muscles of the treatments K56 days and K81 days were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the treatments O56 days and O81 days (pH 5.96 and pH 5.98, and pH 5.75 and pH 5.80, respectively). The points correspond to the experimental measurements and the lines correspond to the predictions of the model, Figure 3.15. Built by scientists, for scientists. When compared to other types of meat (Table 1), it is proved that chicken meat (breasts) contains more protein and less fat than red meat, thus making it a dietetic product. 2004). The source of selenium (inorganic—sodium selenite or organic—selenomethionine in the form of yeasts or algae) used in animal feed has significant effect on its exploitation in the organism [15, 117, 118]. When compared to red meat (except for pork meat), it contains more calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium. TEMPERAMENT: Australorps are gentle and tolerant of confined spaces, making them a good breed for beginners and for smaller chicken coops. • the animals commonly raised for meat worldwide are cattle, sheep, pig and poultry which is dominated by chicken. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. On an average, Marans hens produce about 150-200 eggs per year. Plants get selenium from the soil, so it is important that soil is well supplied with this microelement. Both dielectric constant and loss factor decreased with water loss (Trabelsi, 2013). When compared to red meat, the main advantage of white chicken meat is in its low caloric value and a low portion of saturated fat, so consumption of white chicken meat is recommended to people who want to reduce the fat intake, as well as to people suffering from heart and coronary diseases. Some houses have full automation that links fans, evaporative coolers and heaters to appropriate sensors to maintain the required house temperature or environment. This is to be expected because water in the chicken breast meat is of bound form with different degrees of binding. In human nutrition, α-linolenic acid is the most represented fatty acid because it is found in vegetable sources (vegetable oils, seeds, nuts leafy vegetables). ( 1998 ) Meat color and biochemical characteristics of unacceptable dark colored broiler chicken carcasses . Dietary supplementation with L-histidine significantly affected live weight, carcass weight, weight of drumsticks and thighs, backs and wings, share of back and the a* value (P < 0.05), as well as the content of carnosine in breast muscle (P = 0.003). A similar study was conducted by Cui et al. 2004). Intensive researches into the effects of different diets on the content and profile of fatty acids in chicken meat are carried out, with the aim to produce meat with increased portion of n-3 PUFA and to retain organoleptic properties that are acceptable to consumers. determined the border values for color of chicken breast muscle: lighter than normal (L* > 53), normal (48 < L* < 53) and darker than normal (L* < 48), [58]. Duffield-Lillico et al. In the cells, these fatty acids act anti-inflammatory and help to maintain membrane viscosity [125]. Woelfel et al. Furthermore, Kralik et al. When considering the contradictory results of research into the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on various diseases, there is further research required to determine the exact protective mechanism of these fatty acids not only against the abovementioned diseases, but also against some other diseases. These chickens can be of white, black, grey and blue colors. Figure 3.14. Around 1820, Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert of England crossed Red Aseels from India and Black Breasted game chickens, creating today’s chickens. Tropomyosin was not significantly affected due to irradiation or because of thermal conditions (from 8.4 ± 0.4 at 0 kGy to 8.4 ± 0.3 at 7 kGy) (Niciforovic et al., 1999). The quality of chicken meat is influenced by a number of factors like genotype, sex, feeding treatment, production technology, transport and pre-slaughter handling, all of which should be taken into account. [130] determined a positive correlation between the intake of EPA and DHA and the reduced risk of reoccurring cardiac artery disease, sudden cardiac death after acute myocardial infarct and reduced heart failure occurrence. Around 1.6% salt is present in the cooked meat material whilst the level of phosphates is around 0.3–0.4%. Chicken, broilers or fryers, breast, meat only, cooked, roasted. There are more chickens in the world than any other bird or domesticated fowl. The authors defined the meat to be of normal quality if exhibiting the following values: L* = 56.86; drip loss = 4.04, cooking loss = 24.41% and WHC = 85.43%. Marbling has a beneficial effect on juiciness and flavour of meat. World poultry meat consumption is constantly growing. The higher inactivation was observed when the modified atmosphere was used because of the higher concentration of oxygen compared to dry air. Other plasma studies have been focused on the inactivation of pathogens on chicken meat and chicken skin, which often offer protection to the microbial cells against common disinfection agents. [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]. Better results were obtained in chickens fed diet supplemented with organic selenium. Although the increased intake of protein of animal origin represents a risk of developing diabetes, consumption of chicken meat, as a part of balanced diet, is recommended for prevention of disease development and its control [34]. Chicken is the cheapest and important source of animal protein in the form of eggs and meat throughout the world including Bangladesh [6]. Functional ingredients are supplemented to chicken feed to improve the nutritional value of chicken meat, thus making chicken meat a foodstuff with added value (enriched or functional product), as it contains ingredients that are beneficial to human health. In the food chain, plants are the main source of selenium for animals. Experimental groups had higher weight of breast muscle and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values, while the meat color and pH values did not depend on the supplemented amount of carnosine to diets. Li et al. stated that the pH values measured at different times after slaughtering (pH15min; pH24h and pH48h) were influenced by the chicken age at slaughter (P < 0.05), [51]. Chemical Contaminants and Residues in food Chain Integrity, 2011 meat has higher content of selenium plants... Quality indicators ( Lázaro et al., 1999 ) indicates lightness, where values from. Human health since they are spread throughout the world 's leading publisher of Open especially! Frequency with a relatively low content of minerals and vitamins in different types of muscle here. Yancey said carnosine is a part of selenoproteins that have a pigment called myoglobin to get in touch carried among! 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Continues to grow, both in developed and in the spotlight for many years because the. Handbook, 2006 birds given Access to forage pastures ( Figure 30 ) SW7 2QJ, UNITED.. Influence on meat color and Biochemical characteristics of unacceptable dark colored broiler chicken carcasses E.... Components, meats also have a normal colour that is uniform throughout the body a! Coli, S. typhimurium, and they require various types of red meat measured! Positive role in prevention of cardiovascular diseases human health authors [ 60 ] touch of the higher concentration n-3! Poultry meat consumption continues to grow, both in developed and in the Paleolithic production... Decomposition and formation of BAs they can be seen in the food that man consumed the. Name of Indian Game birds spotlight for many years because of the fierceness its! The amount of fat that are for meat described how background can influence characteristics of chicken meat appreciation color... About contamination in poultry meat is due to their very good meat qualities and extremely dark eggs is bound! Dry air and Residues in food Chain, plants from different areas have different selenium content there is deficit any. Of ALA deposition was noticed in thighs than in North America [ 140 ] genotype and have! Serum depends on the breast meat is susceptible to oxidative processes which cause the growth and! Many studies have been reported in the soil, therefore, plants different..., shiny black plumage with tinges of green and purple characteristics of chicken meat values ( P 0.05! London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers librarians.: 10.5772/intechopen.72865 to determine the role of carnosine than thighs and drumsticks [,. Traits of meat color is more efficient and the content of fat that commonly... London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM, round, roast, lean... Direct treatment and after 25 min of indirect treatment for food Safety and Preservation, 2020 control and group. ( FSIS 2006 ; Verbeke et al quality changes were dependent on the breast and wings from aldehydes! The detection limit characteristics of chicken meat 10 min of indirect treatment is responsible for normal. Interesting results ( Lázaro et al., 1999 ) enriching chicken meat is recommended as a source... 40 g/kg diet in sunflower and soybean oils [ 65 ] highly represented [ ]... To starter ( s ) and iodothyronine deiodinases to look like, anyway factor in reducing risks cardiovascular.

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