lake origin and classification

North American lakes in the U.S.A. (and Canada) do not have the naming consistency of lakes in England, Spain, France or Germany because of the mixed influence of these various countries with different conventions. Of the 1722 lakes on the Canadian list, 410 (24%) had a Lake Name and the remaining 1312 (76%) had a Name Lake, similar to the ratio observed in the NLA dataset. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). The colony's name later stuck when the conveniently named King Charles I of England took over in 1629. 1964 A-frame erected, later to become the vineyard logo. The common notion is "basin.". We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. The final list consisted of 3468 lakes. The total number of lakes, full ecoregion names and their locations are shown in Fig. In England, 98% of the lakes are referred to by Name Lake (Table 2), with only 10 incidences of Lake Name out of 481 lakes total. We observed significant effects of latitude and longitude on the likelihood of lake nomenclature. Classification suggests that However, the case of Vermont does help further support our colonisation hypothesis: there was considerable immigration of francophones from Québec, Canada, through the (Lake) Champlain Valley that occurred in Vermont's early years, resulting in the state name of ‘Vert mont’ or Green Mountain. Generally, with the exception of Connecticut and Vermont, the other New England states (Maine, Massachusetts and New Hampshire) behaved as expected, with their waterbodies dominated by Name Lakes, as in England. If you are uncertain about the classification of a lake or river and the dimensional standards that apply, contact your local planning and zoning office. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. Importance of lake origin - hydrology (inputs,outputs) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age . lake morphology . 2c), and eastward (χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.02; Fig. In Middle English, lake, as a descendant of the Old English word, also could mean "stream; river gully; ditch; marsh; grave; pit of hell," and this might have influenced the form of the borrowed word. The study of these lake basin features is known as . This was about 32% of all the recorded Lake's in the USA. Analysis of available databases of lake nomenclature in Europe and Canada suggests that these geographical shifts in lake names may be due to the main European colonist source countries that settled these regions, with Lake Name predominating in countries where Gaelic and Romance linguistic influences were strongest. This database contains the names of 152 lakes (most >50 ha in surface area) sampled by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (Free et al., 2007) as part of the creation of a reference‐based typology and ecological assessment system. Proportion of lakes in an ecoregion with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Lake, any relatively large body of slowly moving or standing water that occupies an inland basin of appreciable size. Pursuing other historical events, it appears that there were early appearances of the Spanish and French in the Carolinas as well (Edgar, 1998). 3), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 29.93, P = 0.005). 1. Proportion of lakes in each U.S. state with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Finally, in the other dominant Germanic ‘West Teutonic’ language (German), the word for lake ‘See’ almost always comes second (e.g., Müggelsee), as in English‐speaking Great Britain, where Name Lake also dominates. For example, when we thought of lakes we knew of in francophone North America (i.e., Louisiana, Québec), it seemed that Lake Name was more common in those regions. 16. Icag, territory or district. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. When Lake Name is used for a waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch. A state‐by‐state analysis showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states. A termination of many names of places and families, as Kerslake, Shiplake, Aslake, Timberlake, Westlake, Eastlake. Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. Lake Baikal Seal Resource classification is one of the basic tools used by resource managers. Probably not from lacus, a lake, as no consideralile body of Waaler exists in some of the localities so called ; but either from lalw as applied to any small rivulet in the western counties, or from a hard pronunciation of the A- Sax. 1973 Len Evans, Australian Complete Book of Wine: "its influence and the quality of wine it … By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Whether a lake is small, big or very large. These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape, Applications of the NHD at the U.S. environmental protection agency, The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Vol. However, there are several other less visible lake characteristics that are just as significant, yet rarely discussed: namely the shape and structure of a lake basin. France was the first European nation to claim South Dakota and to send in explorers (Schell & Miller, 2004), later granting the territory to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the same treaty that ceded Louisiana (Francis, 2006). A lake is a body of water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from a river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake. The classic case in North America is the Laurentian Great Lakes, which all exhibit Lake Names. We observed substantial variation in lake naming patterns among major European source countries for U.S. settlement. When all potential logistic regression models were compared, the best model explaining lake nomenclature at the continental scale incorporated both ln‐transformed lake surface area and state predictor variables (Table 1). Compensation and Classification is responsible for the development and administration of the city’s classification program; however, every employee has a responsibility to ensure its success. Rhode Island was not represented in the 814 lake NLA dataset. 2a). Many a discussion among limnologists or with a member of the general public has at some point turned to the subject of why the names of some lakes in North America start with Lake, followed by their name (i.e., Lake Name), such as Lake Sunapee, while many others are reversed (i.e., Name Lake), such as Trout Lake. In particular, 100% of the lakes in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain were called Lake Names (Fig. Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. p° LAKE. Origin c) Trophic levels a) Classification based on inflow-outflow Temporary and Permanent Lakes 1. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between lake nomenclature (with 0 coded as Lake Name and 1 coded as Name Lake) and our driver variables at the continental scale. a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land, a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal, any of numerous bright translucent organic pigments. Of the remaining 1096 lakes with defined names, 814 were identified as lakes, 183 as reservoirs, 87 as ponds and 12 as other (Basin, Creek, Dam, Flowage, Hole, Marsh, River or Slough). These states were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin. For example, the NLA dataset includes only a small subset of the U.S.'s six million lakes (Winslow et al., 2014), and we can think of lakes that could alter the patterns we observed to some degree: for example, two of New Hampshire's largest lakes, Lake Winnipesaukee and Lake Sunapee, which were not in the NLA dataset, do not follow the state's 100% Name Lakes pattern, owing potentially to their multi‐syllabic native name origins, which sound better to the ear when preceded by lake. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. As a melting pot of cultures, the U.S.A. is a classic case of linguistic mélange, evident in the way its people have come to refer to its waterbodies. We decided to exclude data on other important limnological factors such as nutrient concentrations or transparency, as these factors may have changed since when the lakes were first named. by Craig Mische on September 22, 2015. We thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing to the catalyst of this work. "deep red coloring matter," 1610s, from French laque (15c., see lac), from which it was obtained. Moving westward and southward in the U.S.A., there would have been an increasing influence of other languages and settler groups, especially Scottish, Irish, French and Spanish. While this list was not populated by lakes in a randomised, stratified design as done in the NLA and did not provide data on lake size, it provided a framework for estimating coarse lake nomenclature patterns in Canada. The probability of a waterbody having a Lake Name in the contiguous U.S.A. increased moving southward, as expected (χ2 = 31.76, P < 0.0001; Fig. Many waterbodies had to be excluded from the initial list of over 9000 in the U.K., as these represented dams, dykes, rivers, harbours and gravel pits. Working off-campus? That Which We Call a Lake by Any Other Name, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_loughs_of_Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada. A lake is a large body of natural water accumulated in a depression. A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. In the early stages a lake contains little organic material and has a poorly developed littoral zone. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. 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